A Yagi antenna is a type of “Beam” antenna. Beam antennas are designed to be directional. Off to the sides and the back of them, the reception and transmission are poor. But from the front of them the signal is concentrated for reception and transmission. Yagi antennas can be made with numerous elements giving increasing gain with each element. Or they can be made with just three elements, a Reflector element, a Driven element and a Director element. One can use numerous materials to make one but a couple of Ham’s came up with the idea to use 1” wide steel Tape Measure for the elements to provide some portability and weight savings as these can be hand held and used that way.
The two designs we will look at are from N5YM and WB2HOL. With permission I will relate their information on how to build a UHF and VHF model Tape Measure antenna. First let me introduce the VHF model as construction is almost identical with either model. The full web site can be viewed here:
|24.5” of ½” PVC Schedule 40 pipe
|(2) ½” PVC cross pieces
|(1) ½” Pipe “T”
|(9.5) 1” wide Tape Measure
|(2) 1 ½” Hose Clamps
|Cable from antenna to radio
As you can see the antenna can be constructed for less than $20 in parts. The (?) at the cable price is due to the fact not everyone has the same radio and antenna connection. They do make adapters and adapter cables that will allow mating different connectors.
Since I had never seen any plans for an antenna using elements made from 1 inch wide steel “tape measure,” I had to do the design myself. To assist in the design I used a shareware computer aided yagi design program written by Paul McMahon VK3DIP. It allowed me to optimize the antenna for the cleanest pattern combined with the best front-to-back ratio.
When I first built this beam I found it needed a matching network of some kind to have a low SWR. My first attempt was a Gamma match. This was unwieldy. The driven element could barely handle the weight and the Gamma match itself was not very flexible. The best matching network turned out to be a “hairpin match.” This is simply a 5 inch length of wire that is connected across the feed points of the driven element. The antenna has some capacitive reactance without the matching network. The 5 inch length of wire has just enough inductance to cancel the capacitive reactance. This resulted in a better match than anything else I had tried.
The wire I used for the hairpin match was enamel insulated 18 gauge solid. Other hams who have duplicated this beam have used just about anything they had on hand. 14 gauge house wire works well, so does a length of 22 gauge hookup wire. It does not seem to matter if it is stranded or solid, use whatever you have available. This results in a very good match across the two meter band once you have adjusted the distance between the halves of the driven element for minimum SWR. (1 inch apart on my prototype).
I used a pair of shears to cut the tape measure elements to length. An old pair of scissors will probably do as well. No matter how you cut the elements be very careful. Those edges are very sharp and will inflict a nasty cut if you are careless. Use some sandpaper to remove the really sharp edges and burrs resulting from cutting the elements to size. I put some vinyl electrical tape on the ends of the elements to protect myself from getting cut. I encourage you to do the same. It will probably be best if you round the corners of the elements once you cut them. Wear safety glasses while cutting the elements. Those bits of tape measure can be hazardous.
The RG58 coax feedline is connected directly to the driven element. No matter what method you use to attach the feedline, make sure you scrape or sand the paint off the tape measure element where the feedline is attached. Most tape measures have a very durable paint finish designed to stand up to heavy use. You do not want the paint to insulate your feedline connection.
If you are careful, It is possible to solder the feedline to the element halves. Care must be taken since the steel tape measure does not solder easily and since the PVC supports are easily melted. You might want to tin the tape measure elements before mounting them to the PVC cross.
If you decide not to solder to the tape measure elements, there are two other methods that have been used to attach the feedline. One method employs ring terminals on the end of the feedline. The ring terminals are then secured under self tapping screws which hold the driven element halves. This method does not allow you to tune the antenna by moving the halves of the driven element. 6-32 bolts and nuts could be used if holes are drilled in the elements near the ends. If the bolt heads are placed nearest the PVC fitting, you could secure ring-terminals with nuts and lock washers. Another possibility is to simply slide the ends of the feedline under the driven element hose clamps and tighten the clamps to hold the ends of the coax. I know this is low-tech, but it works just fine.
Figure 1 – Driven element support construction: Stainless steel hose clamps are used to attach the driven element halves to the PVC cross which acts as its support. This has the added benefit of allowing you to fine tune your antenna for lowest SWR simply by loosening the hose clamps and sliding the halves of the driven element either closer or further apart. By using the dimensions specified, I found that the SWR was 1:1 at 146.565 Mhz (our Fox-Hunt frequency) when the two elements were spaced approximately 1 inch apart. Figure 1 shows the method used to attach the driven element to the PVC cross.
I used 1 1/2 inch hose clamps to attach all the elements on my prototype beam. Others who have duplicated my design have used self tapping screws to attach the elements to the PVC crosses and tees. Performance is the same using either method. The screws are much less expensive but they do not hold the elements as securely. If you do not use 1/2 inch PVC fittings but instead use 3/4 inch, make sure the hose clamps you buy are large enough to fit.
If you wish a slightly neater looking beam, use the self tapping screws. If you do not mind spending a few more dollars for the hose clamps, use them instead. If I were to build another beam I would use screws for the director and reflector, and hose clamps for the driven element. That would give me the best of both methods.
Rubber faucet washers have been used by some builders between the tape measure element and the PVC fittings on the director and reflector. These allow for the tape to fit the contour of the PVC fitting and will make the antenna look better. Now you know what to do with those washers left over from the assortment you once purchased; You know the ones I mean, the washers that do not fit the faucets you have in your house. If you are an apartment dweller, ask around, these things are stashed in almost every homeowners basement or garage.
Cut a length of tape measure to 41 3/8 inches. It will be the Reflector element. Cut two lengths of tape measure to 17 3/4 inches. These will be used for the Driven element. Cut one length of tape measure to 35 1/8 inches. It will be used for the Director. Once you have cut the tape measure to length, put vinyl tape on the cut ends to protect yourself from the sharp edges. You will want to scrape or sand off the paint from one end of each of the driven element halves so you can make a good electrical connection to the feedline.
If you are planning to solder the feedline to the driven elements it is best to tin the elements first before attaching them to the PVC cross. If you don’t, the PVC will melt as you apply heat to the element. It would be a good idea to also take the time to form the wire used for the hairpin match into a “U” shape with the two legs of the “U” about 3/4 inch apart. Tin the ends of the hairpin if you plan on soldering it to the driven element. If you tin 1/4 inch of each end of the hairpin it will leave 4 1/2 inches to shape into the “U”.
You will need to cut two lengths of PVC pipe to use as the boom. One should be cut to 11 1/2 inches. It is used to form the boom between the Director and the driven element. The other piece of PVC should be cut to 7 inches. It will be used between the Reflector and the Driven element. Just about any saw will cut through the soft PVC pipe. I used a hacksaw. When we mass produced this antenna as a club project, we marked the pipe and used a portable jig saw to cut the lengths in assembly line fashion. It took longer to measure the pipe than to actually make the cuts. Since the pipe is available in ten foot lengths, you can make a few beams from a single 10 foot length. In any case, you might want to cut a few extras lengths for your friends. They will want to duplicate this once they see your completed antenna.
At this time you can pre-assemble the PVC boom, crosses and tee which will support the tape measure elements. I did not use any cement or glue when I assembled mine. The PVC pipe is secured in the fittings with a friction fit.
The hose clamps I used are stainless steel and have a worm-drive screw which is used to tighten them. They are about 1/2 inch wide and are adjustable from 11/16 inch to 1 1/2 inch diameter. Attach the tape measure elements to the PVC fittings as shown in the accompanying drawing. It is normal for the Reflector and Director elements to buckle a bit as it is tightened to the PVC Tee and Cross. You can eliminate this buckle if you use the washers and self tapping screws to attach these elements instead of the hose clamps. I do not think the beam will withstand as rough a treatment as when hose clamps are used.
N5YM UHF Model
This diagram is all that is needed to assemble a UHF model Yagi antenna. The dimensions are right on the money to resonate at our CERT repeater frequency so it works extremely well. I have taken my UV-82HP and even on low power I can hit our Repeater from the far Northwest and Northeast corners of Allen. The UHF model is extremely lightweight and can be hand held easily. Each antenna can still be fitted with a clamp style tripod mount so it can be tripod mounted and the tripod can control the direction and angle of use.
The below diagram shows the use of cable ties on the Reflector and Director elements. These can be used on the VHF model as well to help reduce weight. I used them.
To help make the elements safer and easier to transport the diagram calls for the use of Black electrical type tape over the sharp cut edges of the tape measure. I used the Fuzzy side of Velcro as it is thicker to prevent cuts and it can be used as an attaching point to bend the elements over to the center pieces for more compact transport or storage.
I had shared these designs with an upcoming CERT member, Kelly Cunningham. He is a licensed radio operator, KC5HAM, and he and Jim Longley built themselves one of each. I asked Kelly if I could share the images and he approved their use. He made some slight modifications to the antenna by adding a handle bar grip to the antenna which allows easy holding and directing. They ran the cable up through the center of the boom too which neat’s the package up nicely.
The antennas work extremely well. With the VHF model and my HT from my living room I could hit a Denton Repeater 28 miles away! I went outside and pointed it North and hit a Sherman repeater once with it at 38 miles away. So you can see the increase in range that a “beam” type antenna can provide. The antennas are made from inexpensive parts available at local hardware stores except for the cable and connectors. Amazon can help in that area or locally HRO in Plano has many premade cables and adapters that will work.
If anyone needs help with the soldering part I can meet them somewhere or come to your home to help in that area. If there is enough interest we could possibly do a CE class and build some of these. Does anyone have a chop saw? Doing the hacksaw cuts takes time plus a vice is usually required. One 25’ tape Measure will make (2) UHF models and (2) VHF models. Harbor Freight gives these away for free with a coupon. I bought one at Home Depot for $11 and got (4) antennas out of it. I encourage everyone to give these antennas a try. They are cheap and easy to make with hand tools and they add so much in the range category for our HT radios.